• Transplantation of CTLA4Ig gene-transduced adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduces inflammatory immune response and improves Th1/Th2 balance in experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    요약 : 
    Background: Autoimmune thyroiditis is one of common organ-specific autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSC) and CTLA4Ig genetransduced ATMSC on autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by immunization with thyroglobulin. Animals were divided into three groups: (i) a half million of human ATMSC, (ii) a half million of murine CLTA4Ig gene-transduced human ATMSC (CTLA4Ig-MSC), or (iii) normal saline (as control), which were administered intravenously four times within a 3-week period. Blood and tissue samples were collected 1 week after the last cell transplantation.

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  • Transplantation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevents the Development of Lupus Dermatitis

    요약 : 
    MRL/lpr mice spontaneously develop high titers of anti-dsDNA antibodies and symptoms such as glomerular nephritis and organ weight gain. They also develop spontaneous skin inflammation similar to the cutaneous
    lesions common in human lupus erythematosus. This study aimed to compare the effects of long-term serial administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), CTLA4Ig-overexpressing
    ASCs, and cyclophosphamide treatment in MRL/lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice were divided into saline (C), cyclophosphamide (Y), ASC early (E), ASC late (L), and CTLA4Ig-overexpressing ASC (CT) treatment groups.
    Background-matched control MRL/MPJ mice treated with saline (N) were also compared. The treatment period was 5–23 weeks, except for the L group (15–23 weeks). Blood and tissue samples were collected when the mice were 24 weeks old. Organ weight, anti-dsDNA antibodies, urine protein, skin and kidney histologic abnormalities, and trabecular bone volume were evaluated. The Y group showed the greatest decrease in anti-dsDNA antibodies, organ weight, degree of kidney inflammation and glomerular infiltration of C3, and incidence rate of severe proteinuria; the E, L, and CT treatment groups showed better results than the C group. ASC transplantation reduced anti-dsDNA antibody levels significantly. Mice treated with ASCs or CTLA4Ig-ASCs starting from the early disease stage did not show dermatitis upon gross examination; they demonstrated significant improvement in hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration scores in histopathology. Micro-CT analysis revealed that cyclophosphamide treatment significantly decreased bone volume and increased bone spacing in the trabecular bone. Thus, we found that ASC and CTLA4-ASC treatments prevent lupus dermatitis development in MRL/lpr mice without adverse effects

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  • The therapeutic efficacy of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on experimental autoimmune hearing loss in mice.

    요약 : 
    Autoimmune inner ear disease is characterized by progressive, bilateral although asymmetric, sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with autoimmune inner ear disease had higher frequencies of interferon-c-producing
    T cells than did control subjects tested. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) were recently found to suppress effector T cells and inflammatory responses and therefore have beneficial effects in various autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immunosuppressive activity of hASCs on autoreactive T cells from the experimental autoimmune hearing loss (EAHL) murine model. Female BALB/c mice underwent b-tubulin immunization to develop EAHL; mice with EAHL were given hASCs or PBS intraperitoneally once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Auditory brainstem responses were examined over time. The T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17-mediated autoreactive responses were examined by determining the proliferative response and cytokine profile of splenocytes stimulated with b-tubulin. The frequency of regulatory T (Treg) cells and their suppressive capacity on autoreactive T cells were also determined. Systemic infusion of hASCs significantly improved hearing function and protected hair cells in established EAHL. The hASCs decreased the proliferation of antigen-specific Th1/Th17 cells and induced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in splenocytes.
    They also induced the generation of antigen-specific CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells with the capacity to suppress autoantigen-specific T-cell responses. The experiment demonstrated that hASCs are one of the important regulators of immune tolerance with the capacity to suppress effector T cells and to induce the generation of antigen-specific Treg cells.

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  • Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    요약 : 
    Prolonged life expectancy, life style and environmental changes have caused a changing disease pattern in developed countries towards an increase of degenerative and autoimmune diseases. Stem cells have become a promising tool for their treatment by promoting tissue repair and protection from immune-attack associated damage. Patient-derived autologous stem cells present a safe option for this treatment since these will not induce immune rejection and thus multiple treatments are possible without any risk for allogenic sensitization, which may arise from allogenic stem cell transplantations. Here we report the outcome of treatments with culture expanded human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) of 10 patients with autoimmune associated tissue damage and exhausted therapeutic options, including autoimmune hearing loss, multiple sclerosis, polymyotitis, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment, we developed a standardized culture-expansion protocol for hAdMSCs from minimal amounts of fat tissue, providing sufficient number of cells for repetitive injections. High expansion efficiencies were routinely achieved from autoimmune patients and from elderly donors without measurable loss in safety profile, genetic stability, vitality and differentiation potency, migration and homing characteristics. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from the compassionate use treatments in terms of therapeutic efficacy are only preliminary, the data provide convincing evidence for safety and therapeutic properties of systemically administered AdMSC in human patients with no other treatment options. The authors believe that exvivo-expanded autologous AdMSCs provide a promising alternative for treating autoimmune diseases. Further clinical studies are needed that take into account the results obtained from case studies as those presented here

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